Agriculture is the backbone of many global economies. The use of chemical fertilizers has led to the extinction of some organisms that have been critical to ecological balance and environmental conservation. Dwindling returns from farming are because of detrimental technology that had not been proven and now exuding disastrous effects. Organic farming refers to agricultural production that shuns synthetic materials that range from fertilizers, growth hormones, feed additives, and pesticides. It heavily relies on organic materials such as manure (composted animal waste and plant residues), crop rotation, and natural ways of plant protection.
Organic farming aims at maintaining natural balance and healthy biodiversity. Healthy soil means that crops are safe for healthy animals and humans. Ecological protection and nature-based agriculture can recycle its components and nourish farming activities.
For sustainable agriculture to prevail, it must integrate environmental concepts with soil health, economic scalability and profitability, and social equity. The drive for the agrarian revolution led to the rise of chemical usage in farming, and we are witnessing the wrath of Mother Nature. The system was successful until the current unsustainability we are experiencing that will affect future generations if not checked.
Organic farming focuses on the proactive restoration of soil health compared to the conventional synthetic input-intensive system we are currently using. Sustainability comes in soil health management, ecological biodiversity, water usage, and curbing climate change.
Organic farming incorporates sustainable soil practices that combine restorative measures such as crop covers, minimum tillage, zero tillage, crop rotation, and intercropping of crops that offer symbiotic root activities that boost soil fertility.
Organic farming practices improve natural soil structure as it maintains the activities of soil microorganism. The process enhances soil fertility, natural soil formation, efficient energy cycling, soil cycling, and recycling, improving the soil’s water retention capacity. It effectively controls soil erosion as the exposure to eroding agents is reduced. Water management becomes easy as groundwater pollution with synthetic chemicals is reduced.
The use of compost and green manure improves soil water infiltration. It maintains proper soil structure to support agricultural farming into the unforeseeable future. The maintenance of soil balance and its water-retentive capacity is restored. The reliance on green energy mitigates greenhouse gas emissions and their effects, reversing global warming through natural carbon sequestration, raising soil productivity and carbon storage, and reversing climate change.
Lastly, organic farming is sustainable as it leverages biodiversity. It supports the reproduction and propagation of traditional seeds adapted to various ecological environments. In such circumstances, resistance to pests and diseases in farming leads to environmental balance, and wildlife preservation is naturalized. Limited use of chemicals in agricultural activities leads to restoration and re-colonization of species of organisms beneficial to organic production of food.