Climate change has become a global issue. Countries worldwide are joining hands to come up with a remedy. In search of a solution, Organic farming has gained popularity among researchers, farmers, and environmental conservationists. Consequently, as an ecologically extensive system, organic agriculture has become a solid and effective solution to the increasing global demand for sustainability.
As we know it, organic farming is an agriculture system in which non-chemical pests control methods are used in farming. The fertilizers are mainly sourced from plants and animal wastes and supplemented with nitrogen-fixing cover crops. This agriculture system is widely adopted in response to environmental damage caused by synthetic fertilizers and pesticides used in conventional agriculture.
Compared to conventional agriculture, organic agriculture has numerous ecological advantages. Soil preservation. With intercropping, crop rotation, mulching, symbiotic associations, organic fertilizers, and cover cropping, soil’s flora and fauna are improved. Consequently, the soil nutrient cycle is enhanced, making the soil system more stable for the growing plants and crops. Next is water conservation. Through organic farming, there is better nutrient retention. Underground water is prevented from pollution, a common issue with convection agriculture.
Further is the conservation of biodiversity as microbes are preserved and utilized simultaneously through this farming system. Traditional breeds and varieties are preferred genetically due to their excellent resistance to pests and diseases. Also, the systems incorporate many types and species to enhance nutrient cycling within the system.
Additionally, organic farming aids in maintaining natural resources by preserving those around the system. Applying organic fertilizers and eliminating chemical inputs form a favorable habitat for wildlife. Also, we indirectly purify the air and the environment by reducing agrochemical processing. Directly, it helps reduce greenhouse gases and the global warming effect through its ability to sequestrate carbon.
Lastly, organic farming enhances sustainability in the long run by producing food while building on ecological balance. This is achieved through improved soil fertility and pest control. Further, organic farming is more proactive in conserving the environment as opposed to dealing with environmental problems after they emerge. This is done through management practices such as minimum tillage, re-using crop residues, cover crops, and inter-cropping.
Although there is a trade between productivity and sustainability in organic farming, more consumers prefer organic due to healthy food production. Also, consumers have shown a willingness to even pay more for organic food products. Therefore, organic agriculture needs to be prioritized to provide healthy food products and a sustainable environment.